Frequently Asked Questions

What is Tetanurae?

Tetanurae is a clade of Theropod dinosaurs comprising of all theropods more closely related to birds then to Ceratosaurus (Padian et. al., 1999). It includes some of the weirdest and most wonderful dinosaurs out there, including my personal favorite, Giganotosaurus carolinii. 

What is Appalachia?

During the most of the Cretaceous period, North America was split up into 3 landmasses. One of which is known as Appalachia, which was where the Eastern and Midwest United States are now located.

Why do we know so little about the flora and fauna of Appalachia compared to what we know about the fauna and flora of Laramidia (Cretaceous landmass where the American west is now)?

The ice sheets and glaciers of the Pleistocene Ice Age is one of the main reasons we don’t find as much non-Pleistocene fossils, as such large chunks of frozen water cracked and crushed the sediments with the Appalachian fossils in it. During the Mesozoic (the period known as the Age of the  Dinosaurs) the eastern portion of North America was subject to lots of erosion, making a fossil’s chance of being preserved slim.

What is the purpose of Antediluvian Beasts of the East? 

The purpose of that series is to explore the amazing prehistoric flora, fauna, and overall aspects of the Eastern USA, which are often forgotten in books and popular media.


1. Padian, K.; Hutchinson, R. M.; Holtz, T. R. Jr. (1999). “Phylogenic definitions and nomenclature of the major taxonomic categories of the carnivorous Dinosauria (Theropoda)”. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19 (1): 69-80. doi: 10.1080/02724634.1999. 10011123.

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